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A few terms may be found somewhat unfamiliar to English- speaking students of anatomy, and when these are used the more familiar term has been added in parentheses.

The adoption of a uniform code of nomenclature is of such great im- portance that the slight inconvenience which the present generation may experience in the temporary use of a double set of names for a few structures will be more than counterbalanced by the advantages which a universal terminology will eventually offer.

The Editor. When I was invited by the publishers to prepare an atlas of descriptive anatomy at a time when good atlases were in abundance and the wants of the preceding decennium had been largely supplied, I did not accept without due reflection as to the demand for such a work.

I believed that this demand could be best tested by having students use the existing atlases in their dissections. This test demonstrated not only the possible popularity of an appropriate work, but in many respects emphasized the necessity of preparing an atlas which would be handy, practical, not too comprehensive, provided with illustrations true to nature, and specially adapted for the use of medical students in the dissecting room.

My first thought, consequently, was to produce an atlas which would supply the practical wants of both the student and the physician. It is not an atlas for the finished anatomist.

The admirable atlas of Toldt contains a vast number of well-chosen illustrations, but it is so com- prehensive that it is difficult for the student to pick out what he actually needs, and, owing to its high price and the fact that many of its illustrations are not true to nature, it has not met with great favor from the student body.

To the best of my knowledge this is the first anatomical atlas in which multicolor lithography has been employed. Almost the entire myology has been illustrated in this manner; of the thirty-four plates in this volume, thirty were made by this method and the remaining four by the so-called three four color process.

The other illustrations were made by the so-called half-tone method, the complete adaptability of which is abundantly demonstrated by the pic- tures.

Additional explanatory figures and diagrams have been reproduced by simple line- etching. No woodcuts have been employed, since the failure of the latter method to produce illustrations true to life has been distinctly shown by several of the newer anatomical atlases.

It leaves entirely too much to the discretion of the wood-engraver, whereas the photomechanical method of reproduction depends entirely upon the impression made upon the photographic plate by the original drawing.

To my mind, this advantage is not of mucF value, since it is quite a limited one. Since it is undoubtedly true that a large number of reference lines are inelegant and confusing, they have been made in as few instances as possible, and where many designa- 1.

In order to insure the accuracy of the illustrations, all of the preparations were photographed and the photograph was made exactly the same size as the intended illustration, lenses of the longest possible focal length being employed to avoid perspective distortion.

Only a few illustrations are diagrammatic, and in such instances it has been so stated in the titles. The illustrations produced by the half-tone method have been made much clearer by the use of a number of colors.

A buff color has been employed for the bones in the pictures of the joints and of the muscles, and various colors have been used for the different bones of the skull and in the topographic views of the cranium.

Microscopic and topographic anatomy have been disregarded to a certain extent, although enough has been given to serve as an outline for the subsequent volumes, which will be more topographic than descriptive in character.

The parts have been designated according to the Basel nomenclature. The original drawings for this Atlas were executed by Messrs.

Hajck and A. Schmitson-t The former gentleman, who will also furnish the illustrations for the subsequent volumes, has performed his difficult task with such special ajititude and cleverness that the remaining volumes promise to be even better and to exhibit still greater uniformity in the method of production.

A number of the specimens from which the illustrations were made are in the collection of the Anatomical Institute Wiirzburg , and I take this occasion to express my special thanks to Professor Stohr for his permission to employ them in this work.

In addition to the photographed specimens, other dissections have been made and compared, so that every illustration in the book has an individual character, with the exception that marked anomalies have been corrected.

The muscles have been given a bright red color such as they exhibit in a fresh body after they have been exposed for a short time, although less intense tones have been selected than those of the natural muscular and fattv tissues.

In spite of this, how- ever, the price of the work is much lower than that of most other atlases. The Author. In the lithograi hic f lates the inscriptions have Ix-en made by a second impression.

X About ten of the illustrations in the Atlas were sketched by W. Human anatomy treats of the structure of the human body, in contrast to physiology, which treats of function, and it is usually subdivided into general anatomy and special anatomy.

General anatomy is practically synonymous with histology, and treats of the structure of the component parts of the body. Special anatomy is usually termed descriptive or systematic anatomy, since it consists of the simple description of the different parts and systems of the body.

In describing the position of a structure it is always to be assumed that the body is in the erect posture. If a part is situated nearer to the median plane, it is designated intertial or medial; while if it is more remote, it is said to be external or lateral.

The direction toward the median plane is spoken of as inward and the opposite direction as outward. Above and below, like all other designations, refer to the erect position of the body, and this direction may be frequently better indicated by the terms cranial and caudal.

In front and behind refer to the anterior and posterior surface of the body, but this relation may be more accurately expressed by ventral and dorsal.

Special additional designations are to a certain extent necessary for the extremities. In this connection, proximal means nearer to the trunk and distal more remote.

In the forearm it is preferable to use the words radial and tdnar instead of outer and inner, since during prona- tion see page the inner side is directed outward and vice versa; and since the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot are designated respectively as the volar and plantar surfaces, the words volar and plantar arc used to indicate the position of parts situated upon the corre- sponding surfaces.

The greater portion of the skeleton of the human body is composed of bones, the remainder consisting of cartilages, and since the bones consist largely of lime salts they are much firmer than the cartilages, which, though hard, are nevertheless flexible.

The parts of the skeleton are either paired or single, the latter being in the minority. The bones of the human body var ' greatly in their form, shape, and size.

The largest bone is the thigh bone or femur; the smallest are the sesamoid bones of the hand and the auditory ossicles. The long bones have in general a cylindrical shape and are found only in the extremities.

The shaft contains a cavity, the medullary cavity, which is filled with bone-marrow, and it is on this account that these bones are also termed tubular bones.

The long bones of the human body are found only in the skeleton of the extremities. They are as follows: the clavicle, the humerus, the radius, the ulna, the five metacarpal bones, the bones of the fingers and toes, the femur, the tibia, the fibula, and the metatarsal bones.

The ribs are classified with the flat bones. The broad or flat bones are markedly flattened in one direction and have the shape of flat or curved plates.

Their central portion consists of spong ' bone, the cortex being formed, however, by a more or less thick layer of compact cortical substance.

In many instances they are provided wdth well-marked processes. In the flat bones of the skull the spongiosa is known as the diploe, while the layers of compact substance arc designated as the outer and inner vitreous tables.

The flat bones of the human body arc: the sternum, the sca] ula, the innominate bones, the ribs, and many of the cranial bones. The short bones have an irregular form and no one of their diameters greatly exceeds the others.

They consist almost entirely of spongy tissue, their compact cortical layer being fre- quently very thin. In addition to the long, flat, and short bones there are a number which cannot be classified in any of the three categories.

These are designated as irregular bones ; as a rule, they repre- sent transition forms between the broad and flat bones, as in the cases of the sacrum and of many of the cranial bones.

Among the latter there are also some — for example, the temporal bone and the occipital bone — which in a portion of their extent are typical flat bones, while in their remaining portions they would be regarded as belonging to the group of the short or irreg- ular bones.

All the varieties of bones may possess prominences which take the form of projections, ridges, and processes of the most varied shapes. In a similar manner many bones possess excavations jovece or fossce , impressions, grooves, furrows sulci , notches incisurce , perforations joramina , slits hiatus , and canals.

The enlarged rounded ends, particularly of the long bones, are frequently called heads, while the constriction situated beneath them is known as the neck.

The bones of the human body are usually studied in the macerated condition, i. The macerated bone represents not only the bone-ash, i. The bone substance consists chemically of almost two-thirds inorganic, and of a little more than one-third organic material; the latter is chiefly gelatin or ossein, and may be demonstrated in the form of the so-called bone-cartilage by extracting the calcium salts with acids.

The inorganic constituents of bone are, calcium carl onate about Both the bone cartilage and the calcined bone retain the original shape of the bone from which they were obtained, the organic and the inorganic constituents being intimately intermingled.

The actual bony tissue appears in two modifications, which pass into each other, how- ever, without demarcation, the compact substance and the spongy substance.

The former has a dense and apparently quite uniform structure, while the spongy substance consists of a fine network of bony trabecular, v.

In reality, however, the architecture of the spongy substance is by no means irregular. Almost nowhere in the body do we find bony tissue uncovered, as it is enveloped either by articular cartilage or by periosteum.

Articular cartilage covers the ends of two bones form- ing a joint, as in the extremities of most of the long bones; the remainder of the bone is enveloped by periosteum, a fibrous connective- tissue structure of varying thickness, which is of great im- portance for the nourishment, growth, and regeneration of the bone.

Articular cartilage is hard but elastic, and consists of the so-called hyaline cartilage. Its thickness varies greatly in different bones, being sometimes only the fraction of a millimeter or in other cases amounting to several millimeters.

These cartilages are enveloped by a connective-tissue covering, the perichondrium. With reference to the development of bone, two varieties of bone formation are recognizable.

The great majority of the bones are laid down in cartilage at a certain stage of fetal development, and these bones, which are thus preformed in cartilage, stand in contrast with those which are formed by the direct ossification of connective tissue, the so-called membranous bones, examples of which are to be found in the majority of the flat cranial bones and in many of the facial bones.

For a minute description of the processes of ossification, see Sobotta's " Histology," Saunders' " Medical Hand Atlases. These centers may be single short bones or, as is usually the case, multiple, and sometimes they occur in relatively large numbers and are somewhat irregularly arranged as in the sternum.

Usually, however, particularly in the long bones of the extremities, the center for the future shaft of the bone, the diaphvsial center, appears first, while the ends or epiphyses still remain cartilaginous, and each epiphysis later de- velops at least one and frequently several separate centers of ossification the exceptions arc given upon page 92 , which not only appear at a much later [ eriod than the diaphysial center, but long after birth are still separated from the cen- ter for the diaphysis by a layer of cartilage.

The human skeleton may be separated into three chief divisions: A The skeleton of the trunk; B the skeleton of the head; C the skeleton of the extremities.

From the standixnnt of cmbryolog ' and evolution the skeleton should be divided into: i The axial skeleton, I.

While the dorsal arches are firmly united with the Ixxlies of the vertebra? The entire series of the vertebnc form the spine or vertebral column, and the thoracic xtx- tebne with the ribs and the sternum form the tJwrax, The skeleton of the trunk consequently consists of the vertebral column together with the thorax.

The True Vertebrje. In the vertebral column two main subdivisions may be recognized. One subdivision is formed by the trtie vertebrcp, the other by the jalsc vertebrm, the former being separate bones connected by h'gaments and joints, while the latter are united by bony tissue to fonn larger bones.

The entire human spinal column consists of thirty-two to thirty-five vertebrae; of these, twenty-four are true vertebra? A typical vertebra is composed of: i The lx dy; 2 the vertebral arch; and 3 a num- ber of processes.

The posterior surface usually presents one or more large nutrient foramina and, with the vertebral arch, cranpletes the enclosure of the spinal foramen Joramen verlebrale.

The arch consists of somewhat firmer tissue than the body and forms from a half to three-quarters of a circle.

The superior intervertebral notch is usually the shallower; the inferior one the deeper. The processes of the vertebrae consist of the articular processes Fig.

Of the remaining processes, the spinous process is single, while the transverse processes arc paired. They are also known as "rota- tory" vertebne, in contradistinction to the remaining vertcbrie flexion vertebra.

The general characters of the cervical vertebne Figs. As a consequence of this, the upper surface of even- vertebra projects laterally beyond the Ixxiy of the vertebra next aboiT Figs.

The arches of the cenical vertebrae Fig. The transverse processes Figs. The spinous processL-s Figs. From the third to the sixth the cervical vertcbnc are tyiiical.

The seventh Fig. Its spinous process is the uppermost one discoverable by palpation, and the bone is therefore also known as the vertebra prominens.

The first cervical vertebra, or atlas Figs. The spinous process is also wanting, its place being taken by a prominence known as the posterior tubercle, corresponding to which there is an anterior tubercle upon the anterior arch.

Finally, instead of articular processes, it possesses two upper and two lower articulating surfaces, and both the superior and the inferior vertebral notches are absent.

In the atlas there are distinguishable therefore an anterior arch, a ix sterior arch, and the connecting lateral masses, which are the strongest portions of the bone.

The anterior arch is shorter and weaker but higher than the ix sterior one; anteriorly ventrally it presents a slight projection, the anterior tubercle; posteriorly dorsally, i.

The posterior arch of the atlas bears upon its posterior surface a short projection, the pos- terior tubercle, a rudiment of the spinous process, and is the lowest of all the arches of the cervical vertebra?

It is flat and broad, however, and presents upon its upper surface near the pedicle a furrow which is sometimes shallow and sometimes broad and deep, and which is occui ied by the vertebral artery.

The inner portion of each lateral mass of the atlas tuberositas atlantis projects markedly into the anterior part of the spinal canal, so that the latter is converted into a smaller anterior comp artment, for the reception of the odontoid process of the axis, and a larger posterior com- partment.

This posterior compartment is really the spinal foramen and contains the spinal cord. Upon the upper surfaces of the lateral masses are the upper articular surfaces for the reception of the occipital condyles.

These surfaces are bean-shaped and, corresponding to the convexity of the condyles, they are concave from anteriorly and within to posteriorly and without.

In the middle they are constricted and occasionally divided. On the under surface of the lateral masses are found the inferior articular surfaces which serve for articulation with the second cervical vertebra and resemble the similar surfaces of the other vertebrae more than do the superior articular surfaces, possessing plane, but slightly inclined almost horizontal surfaces.

The transverse processes exhibit the same characteristics as the transverse processes of all the cervical vertebrae, but are larger.

Like the others, each possesses a foramen transver- sarium, but the sulcus nervi spinalis and the tubercles arc abseiit.

The second cervical vertebra Figs. This odontoid process is cone-shaped with a rounded apex, and presents an anterior facet for articu- lation with the anterior arch of the atlas and a posterior articular facet which is not always dis- tiiict.

Instead of articular processes the upper part of the body presents corresponding articular surfaces for connection with the atlas; these surfaces are slightly convex and but a trifle inclined from the horizontal.

The spinous process Fig. The foramin.! Their bodies Figs. In the upper thoracic vertebrae their surfaces arc elliptical, like those of the cervical region, but as we pass downward they become rounder, then cordiform, and finally reniform in the lower members of the series, which approximate the form of the lumbar vertebra?.

And not only do the IxxJies become larger, but their lateral diameter especially is increased as they gradu- ally approach the form of the lumbar vertebrae.

Their contiguous surfaces are almost per- fectly flat. The spinal foramen Fig. The upper and lower margins of the Ixxlies each present, immediately in front of the pedicles, a demifacet for the head of a rib Fig.

Those vertebrae which possess an entire facet have typically no inferior facet. The arches of the thoracic vertebra; Fig.

The articular processes, with the exception of those of the twelfth vertebra, lie almost in the frontal plane and are placed so that the almost round and slightly concave inferior surfaces look forward, while the slightly convex superior ones look backward, the surfaces forming part of a thick cj'linder the axis of which lies in front of the vertebral body.

The superior processes are verj' prominent, while the inferior ones project but slightly. The long transverse processes Fig. They are directed back- ward as well as outward, and have thickened club-shai ed extremities.

The anterior surface of this thickening usually presents an approximately circular, slightly concave articular facet, for the accommodation of the tubercle of a rib; this facet is wanting, however, in the eleventh and twelfth vertebrae Fig.

The spinous processes Figs. Those of the middle vertebra? That of the twelfth vertebra Fig. The lumbar vertebrae Figs.

The anterior surface is distinctly concave from above downward and convex from side to side, so that the upper and lower surfaces of the bodies are considerably broader than their middle portions.

Also the Ixxlies of the lower lumbar vertebrae at least and especially of the fifth are distinctly higher anteriorly than pos- teriorly Fig.

The arches of the lumbar vertebra Fig. The surfaces represent sections of a large hollow cylinder, whose axis is situated, not in front of the vertebral bodies, as in the thoracic region, but behind them behind the spinous process , and the inferior j rocesses of each vertebra are consequently overlapped laterally by the superior processes of the next succeeding one.

The inferior processes of the fifth vertebra are united with the upper articular processes of the sacrum see page The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae Fig.

The superior articular processes of the lumbar vertebrae also exhibit another round roughened protuberance, the mammiUary process Figs.

They extend directly backward and show a slight thickening at their apices. The False Vertebrje. The false vertebrae, which are variable in number, form two bones, the sacrum and the coccvx.

It is a broad, curved, moderately flat, shovel-shaped lx nc Figs. In it there may be distinguished an anterior relatively smooth surface, concave in both the sagittal and transverse directions, and known as pelvic surface, because it looks toward the j clvic cavity, and a posterior extremely rough dorsal surface.

The broad ui: per surface of the sacrum is called the base and the low-er angle the apex. The pelvic surface presents a number of transverse ridges, usually four, which connect four i airs of irregular rounded foramina known as the anterior sacral foramina.

The ridges correspond to the junctions of the live originally separate sacral vertebra; of which the bone is composed, while the sacral foramina indicate the junctions of the bodies with the lateral pro- cesses costal and transverse ] rocesses.

The portions of bone situated external to the sacral foramina and which are particularly well developed in the upper part of the sacrum, where they articulate with the pelvic girdle, are designated as the lateral masses paries lateralcs Fig.

Their lateral surfaces exhibit large ear-shaped articular surfaces, known as the auricular stirjaces, which articulate with the pelvic bones, and occur chiefly upon the first, to a limited extent upon the second, and even upon the third sacral vertebra Fig.

Behind the auricular surfaces there is an irregular rough impression, the sacral tuberosity Fig. At the junction of the base of the sacrum and the pelvic surface there is a feebly marked line, the sacral portion of the ileopectineal line linea iermhmlis , which separates the true from the false jMilvis.

The upper surface of the sacrum Fig. The form of this surface exactly fits the corresponding surface of the Ixxly of the fifth lumbar vertebra and exhibits all the characteristics of a lumbar vertebra, including a superior vertebral notch and a superior articular process.

The dorsal surface of the sacmm Fig. In addition, it exhibits a series of parallel, rough, frequently interrupted ridges, a median single ridge, and two rows of paired ridges.

The median ridge, known as the crcsty consists of the more or less fused spinous processes of the five sacral vertebra?

These Fig. The former is, as a rule, the least pronounced of all the ridges, and is formed by the fusion of the articular processes of the sacral vertebra?

The former lie at the base of the sacrum and are called the superior articular processes of the sacrum; they articulate with the inferior articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra anrl are equally well formed.

Their articular surfaces are placed midway between the sagittal and the frontal plane. The articular crest is continued downward on each side over the apex of the sacrum and usually projects beyond it as a horn- like process called the sacral cornu.

This process is the modified lowermost articular process, and is united by ligaments to a similar process on the coccyx. The lateral sacral crest is to be regarded as formed by the fusion of the transverse processes and forms a rough ridge which is occasionally interrupted.

The sacrum is traversed throughout its length by a canal TFig. It is tolerably wide in the upper part of the sacrum, but rapidly diminishes in both iis sagittal and transverse diameters as it descends.

It terminates externally between the sacral cornua as the sacral hiatus Fig. The intervertebral foramina correspond to the similar structures in the true vertebra?

This is due to the fact that the spinal nerves divide into an anterior and a posterior branch within the sacral canal instead of outside of the spinal canal as in the true vertebra?

The coccyx Figs. The first vertebra alone shows some vertebral characteristics, since there can be recognized in it indica- tions of transverse processes as well as of the upper articular processes which are transformed into the coccygeal cornua.

The transverse processes also frequently appear in the second ver- tebra in the shape of feeble indistinct projections, but the remaining coccygeal vertebrae arc irregular, rounded pieces of bone.

None of the coccygeal vertebrae possesses a trace of vertebral arches or of a spinous process, and the individual vertebrae are united either by synchondroses or more rarely by bony tissue.

The sacrum shows typical sexual differences, since it is broader, shorter, and less curved in the female than in the male.

The vertebral column is completed by its ligamentous connections and particularly by the intervertebral discs situated between the bodies of the vertebrae see page no.

If the bony vertebral column be observed from the side Fig. This curvature is manifold, the cervical portion of the column being convex ante- riorly, the thoracic portion markedly concave anteriorly, the lumbar portion decidedly convex anteriorly, and the sacrum concave anteriorly.

The curvatures of the vertebral column are sub- ject to individual variation. From here upward the vertebral column becomes smaller until the fifth thoracic vertebra is reached, whence it commences to enlarge as it ascends.

A study of the profile of the si inal column Fig. Just as the anterior surface of the vertebral column is completed by the intervertebral discs between the bodies of the individual vertebra?

These spaces are largest in the lumbar region and between the two upper cervical vertebrae Fig. It communicates laterally with the intervertebral foramina Figs.

There are twenty-three pairs of intervertebral foramina, six in the cervical region see page 26 , twelve in the thoracic region, and five in the lumbar region.

Those in the lumbar region are the largest, while those situated between the cervical vertebrae are the smallest; between the atlas and the occiput there are no intervertebral foramina whatever, and those between the atlas and axis are only partially limited by bone.

The intervertebral foramina in the cervical region are exactly between the transverse processes, while in the thoracic and lumbar regions they are in front of them Fig.

Ossification commences at the end of the second month of embrj'onic life, the centers for the arches ai i earing somewhat earlier than those ior the Ixxly and also giving rise to the different vertebral j rocesses.

The anterior arch remains cartilaginmis for a long time, not ossify- ing until the first year, and not uniting with the iH sterior arch until the fifth or sixth year.

In the axis there is a center for the body and a similar one originally double for the odontoid process. Both unite in the third year.

The sacral vertebra; ossify in a similar manner to the true vertebne. In each there is a single center for the body, two for each arch, epiphyseal i lates, and special ventral centers corresjKmding to the sacral ribs.

The body and arches of the fifth sacral vertebra unite first second year and then follows the union of the body and arches of the first ver- tebra fifth and sixth year , while bony union between the l odies does not occur until the twenty-fifth year or later.

In the coccyx the first vertebra is ossified at birth, the last one not until the twentieth year. Attention may first be directed to the bony ribs, of which there are twelve pairs Figs.

The ribs are not tubular bones, but flat lx ny strips of considerable length. Those in the middle of the series are quite uniform in shape, only the upjXT and lower ones showing certain deviations.

In a typical rib the following j arts may be recognized : 1. The heady the posterior vertebral slightly thickened end.

It presents an articular surface Fig. The neck, a constriction situated external to the head Fig. The bodVy the longest part of the rib. This is i laced vertically and is distinctly flattened from without inward, so that an external and an internal surface may be recognized; near the tubercle it presents a rough surface, the angle of the rib Fig.

The rib is at first directed outward, l ackward, and downward, but at the costal angle it turns upon itself and passes for- ward.

On the inner surface of the lower margin of the body there is a groove, the costal groove Fig. At its anterior extremity, the body of the rib presents a roughened, somewliat shallow surface for the reception of the costal cartihge.

The tyj ical ribs arc the third to the tenth, the first two and the last two exhibiting certain peculiarities. The first rib Fig. Its head has no crest, since the first rib usually articulates with the Ixxlv of the first thoracic vertebra onlv and not with two adjacent vertebra', and its angle coincides with the tulxTcle.

The second rib Fig. It is longer than the first rib, but its posterior portion shows the same peculiar torsion of the body, so that one surface looks outward and upward while the other is directed downward and inward.

The position of its anterior extremity is typical, and it possesses a capitular crest, although the tubercle and angle still coincide.

The eleventh Fig. The crests of the head are wanting and the tubercles have no articular surface, being cither merely indicated or entirely absent.

The bony ribs increase in length from the first to the seventh and then decrease downward to the twelfth. It is only in the cases of the first and the posterior portion of the second ribs that the outer lower border corresponds to the thoracic wall.

By torsion curvature is meant the torsion of the ribs upon ihcir axes. On the other hand, only the anterior extremities of the two lower ribs are vertical, the jxKterior extremities having their upper border directed backward Fig.

The costal cartilages connect the bony ribs with the sternum, but it is only in the upper seven ribs that the sternal connection is a direct one Fig.

The eighth, ninth, and tenth ribs have a common cartilage which is continuous with that of the seventh, and the eleventh and twelfth ribs have free ends with short cartilaginous apices.

Consequently true and false ribs may be recognized, the true ribs being the first to the seventh and the false ones the eighth to the twelfth. The eleventh and twelfth ribs are also termed floating ribs.

The cartilages, par- ticularly of the middle ribs, become distinctly wider as they pass toward the sternum. The first and second cartilages are inclined slightly downward toward the sternum from alx ve downward and from without inward , the third is exactly horizontal, and from the fourth downward there is an increasing inclination from below upward and from without inward Fig.

The cartilages of the sixth to the tenth ribs are often quite broad and articulate with each other by variously formed processes passing upward and downward; they form synchondroses or, as is usually the case, diarthroses, and by their union there is formed an arch-like lower border for the thorax, the costal arch.

The breast-bone, or sternum, is a single, flat, oblong bone. It lies approximately in the frontal plane and forms the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax, and by its articu- lation with the clavicles, it completes the shoulder girdle anteriorly.

It is composed Fig. The manubrium is considerably broader than the body of the bone, and is broadest above and narrowest below; its anterior surface is slightly convex, and the posterior surface slightly concave.

The upper margin ] resents three rounded notches, a median shallow interclavicular or jugular natch, and two lateral deeper clavicular notches, which are covered with cartilage and accommodate the sternal ends of the clavicles.

Immediately below each clavicular notch there is a notch Fig. The body is usually narrowest above, gradually widening as it descends, until it attains its greatest breadth in its lower third, and then rapidly narrowing again as it approaches the xiphoid process; it is occasionally, however, of uniform width throughout.

Its nearly flat anterior ventral surface is called the planum stcrnalc, and sometimes presents transverse lines Fig. At the margins of the body Fig.

The notches for the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs lie close together, and the fourth notch is situated below the middle of the entire bone.

The xiphoid process varies greatly in shape and size, it is always markedly narrower than the body, often partly or even wholly cartilaginous, and it is sometimes perforated.

The female sternum is usuallv shorter and broader than that of the male. Clavicular notch Noich for first rib Manubrium Notch for second rib.

The thorax Figs. In it there may be recognized an upper opening and a much larger lower one. The superior thoracic aperture is formed by the first thoracic vertebra, the first rib, and the upper margin of the manubrium.

Like the cross-section of the thorax, it is rcniform in shape on account of the projecting vertebral bodies , and is placed not horizontally but obliquely, being directed downward and forward so that at the end of expiration, the upper margin of the sternum usually corresponds to the junction of the second and third thoracic vertebrae.

The inferior aperture is of very irregular form on account of the notch situated between the costal margins and the lower end of the sternum.

It is bounded posteriorly by the twelfth thoracic vertebra, by the twelfth and then by the eleventh rib, and anteriorly by the costal mar- gins and the xiphoid process of the sternum.

The angle between the costal margin and the xiphoid process is known as the subcostal or injrasterjial angle. The anterior wall of the thorax, formed by the sternum and the costal cartilages, is con- siderably shorter than the posterior one, formed by the vertebral column.

Above the difference amounts to the height of two entire vertebra? The lateral wall formed by the ribs is still longer than the posterior one Fig.

On either side of the bodies of the vertebra? The trans- verse or frontal diameter of the thorax is considerably larger than the sagittal or sterno- vertebral one.

Their direction naturally corres[ onds exactly to that of the adjacent ribs, but they are con- siderably wider than these structures, especially in front between the cartilages.

Some time after puberty epiphyseal centers appear for the heads and tubercles, and these do not fuse with the main portion of the bone until after the twenty-fifth year.

As a rule, there is but one center for the xiphoid process. Ossification of the sternum does not begin until the fourth or sixth month of embryonic life, and in the xiphoid process not until from the sixth to the twentieth year.

Supernumerary vertebrae arc sometimes present, particularly in the lower portion of the vertebral column sacrum, lumbar vertebrae.

The ribs frequently fork near the costochondral articulations, the two portions so formed usually uniting again, so that a fenestration of the rib is produced.

Foramina are not rare in the sternum and one is frequently found in the xiphoid process. At the upper end of the manubrium, at the sides of the interclavicular notch, two small Ixjnes which are termed cpistertial bones occasionally occur.

A skull the bones of which have been isolated, is known as a disarticulated skull. Some bones, indeed, are scarcely visible in the perfect skull, owing to the fact that they arc to a great extent covered or overlapped by the other cranial bones.

The skull will tlierefore be studied first from in front, then from the side, from below without the inferior maxilla , and from above, looking downward upon the great cranial cavity which encloses the brain, and finally the outer and inner aspects of the cranial vault will be considered.

If the anterior aspect of the skull Figs. The j rocess of the frontal bone articulating with the zygomatic U ne in this situation is known as the externul angular or zygomatic process.

A portion of the temporal bone is also visible on the anterior aspect of the skull. The sphenazygomatic suture is situated in the outer wall of the orbit between the greater wing of the sphenoid and the zygomatic bone, the latter forming a part of the outer wall of the orbit, as well as the outer and a portion of the lower margin of the orbit.

The inter- vening sutures are called the nasofrontal, the frontomaxillary, and the frontolachrymal sutures.

The two nasal bones, which form the main portion of the bony bridge of the nose, are sep- arated from each other by the internasal suture, and from the nasal process of the maxilla by the nasofnaxillary suture.

They fonn the upper boundary of the anterior nares apertura piri- formis , which are bounded throughout the rest of their circumference by the two maocillce.

The maxilla also forms the inner half of the floor of the orbit and of the inferior orbital margin, the inferior orbital sphenomaxillary fissure, in the floor of the orbit separating the maxilla from the greater wing of the sphenoid.

The zygomaticomaxillary suture separates the maxilla from the zygomatic bone, whose malar surface is visible in the anterior view of the skull.

The lower portion of the maxilla forms the tooth-bearing alveolar process. Finally there is the mandible or lower jaw.

Its middle portion or body presents a foramen, the mental foramen, and the tooth-bearing alveolar portion; to either side and somewhat fore- shortened in the figure the ramus.

The lateral aspect of the skull Figs. Alx ve and anteriorly we observe that the frontal bone is separated from the parietal bone by the coronal suture, and from the greater wing of the sphenoid by the sphenofrontal suture.

Behind the frontal bone is seen almost the entire parietal bone. It is limited anteriorly by the coronal suture and is separated from the occipital bone posteriorly by the lambdoid suture.

Below the frontal and parietal bones, the temporal surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid is visible. The origin of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone marks the termination of the inferior temporal line as it passes from the parietal to the temporal tone.

In the zygomatic region the planum temporalc deepens into the temix ral fossa. In looking at the skull from the side, the malar surface of the zygomatic bone is directed toward the observer.

In the lower jaw we sec the body with the mental foramen, and ahnost at right angles with the body, the ramus, the upper portion of which is divided by a deep notch, the sigmoid fiotch, into two j rocesses, the coronoid and the condyloid f r cesses.

The articular surface of the condyloid process rests in a fossa of the temj oral bone situated below the root of the zygoma, the mandibular or glenoid jossa.

The skull seen fro. The inferior aspect of the human skull, exposed by the removal of the lower jaw, presents an extremely irregular surface Figs.

Passing from before backward, there may be noticed first the bony plate of the hard palate, which is bounded externally by the alveolar process of the maxilla and the upper row of teeth.

It forms the bony partition separating the oral and nasal cavities, is composed of two bones upon either side, the palatine process of the maxilla, forming its anterior two-thirds to three- quarters, while the posterior third or fourth is furnished by the horizontal portion of the palate bone.

The palate bones are separated from the palatine processes of the maxilla by the trans- verse palatine suture, and at the posterior extremity of the median palatine suture, the two bones terminate in a spine, the posterior nasal spine.

The ]X sterior free margins of the horizontal plates of the palate bones form the lower boundary of the posterior nares or choanal, the pos- terior outlets of the bony nasal fossa?.

To the outer side of the hard palate is seen the short, broad zygomatic process of the maxilla, which articulates with the malar lx ne by means of the zygomaticomaxillary suture.

There is also to be seen the anterior extremity of the injerior orbital or sphenomaxillary fissure between the upper jaw and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

The zygomatic arch, formed by the junction of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone with the temporal process of the zygo- matic bone, is distinctly visible.

A large portion of the external surface of the base of the skull is formed by the splienoid bone.

The posterior margin of this infratemporal surface is separated from the contiguous petrous portion of the temporal bone by the sphefwpetrosal fissure, which is continuous internally with an irregular foramen, the foramen lacerum.

The extreme postcro-external angle of the greater wing of the sphenoid, the spine, is directed toward the temporal bone, and presents a round opening, the foramen sphwsum, which leads into the cranial cavity and transmits the middle meningeal artery.

In front of this is a larger oval aperture, the foramen ovale, through wliich the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve emerges from the cranial cavity.

In the middle of the base of the skull a part of the body of the sphenoid bone is visible between the two greater wings, but its anterior portion is partly concealed.

It will be observed that the posterior margin of the bony nasal septum, which in this preparation represents the septum clwanarum, is formed by the vomer, which articulates with the body of the sphenoid by means of a broad base, known as the ala vomeris.

The broader, larger, external plate is termed the external pterygoid plaie, and the narrower internal one, the internal pterygoid plaie, terminates below in a small hook-like process, the hamular process Iiamulus pterygoideus.

The ix sterior half of the external surface of the base of the skull is formed by the two tem- poral bones and by the occipital bone. The apex of the petrous portion lies in an irregularly shaped opening, the foramen lacerum; it is separated from the sjjhenoid bone anteriorly by the sphenopetrosal fissure and from the occipital bone posteriorly by the petro-occipital fissure.

The mastoid portion articulates with the occipital bone by means of the occi pitoifiastoid suture. Slightly to the inner side and in front of the mastoid process is the pxjinted styloid process; between the mastoid and styloid processes there is an opening, the stylomastoid foramen; to the inner side of the styloid process there is a rather deep depression, the jugular fossa, leading into the cranial cavity through an irregular opening, the jugular foramen; and to the inner side and in front of the jugular fossa there is a round opening, the external orifice of the carotid canal.

The occipital bone forms tlie large remaining portion of the external surface of the base of the skull. In the adult skull it is united with the sphenoid so that its basilar portion is continuous anteriorly with the Ixxly of the sphenoid bone without demarcation.

The base of each condvle is ] erforated by a short canal, the hypoglossal or anterior condyloid capiat, while the termination of a similar canal, the condyloid or posterior coyidyloid, is visible behind the condyle.

The skull seen from below, the outer surface of the base Vk. In ig. The inner surface of the base of the skull CM- In fig. By the internal surface of the base of the skull Figs.

It is concave, and contains the so-called cranial fossae, of which there arc recognized an anterior, a middle, and a posterior fossa Fig.

All three fossae meet in a saddle-like elevation, the sella turcica, which is a portion of the body of the sphenoid bone and is situated somewhat anteriorly to the middle of the cranial cavity.

The anterior cranial fossa is relatively flat. The greater portion of its floor is formed by the orbital plates of the frontal bone Figs.

They present peculiar eleva- tions and corresponding depressions, called respectively cerebral juga and digitate impressions, and they also present grooves for blood-vessels.

The two halves of the frontal bone are sepa- rated anteriorly by a ridge, the frontal crest, which commences at a foramen, the foramen ccecum, and posteriorly the orbital plates of the frontal bone articulate with the lesser wings of the sphenoid by the sphefw frontal suture.

Lying between the two orbital plates of the frontal bone and extending from the foramen caecum to the sphenoid bone there is a thin bony plate, characterized by being perforated by numerous foramina.

It is the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, and it presents in its median line a comb-like elevation, the crista galli, and articulates with the frontal bone by means of the fronto-ethmoidcU suture.

In the median line behind the cribriform plate of the ethmoid is seen the jugum sphenoidale of the sphenoid bone with the ethmoidal spifie, and to cither side are observed the lesser wings of the bone, these latter arising from either side of the body of the sphenoid by two roots which enclose an opening, the optic foramen.

Near the sella turcica, the lesser wing of either side projects into the middle cerebral fossa as a short, slightly curved, hook-like process, the anterior clinoid process.

The middle cranial fossa is much deeper and larger than the anterior one, and is divided into two halves by a marked median elevation, the sella turcica.

In this there may be recog- nized the high back of the saddle, the dorsum sellcE, with the hypophyseal fossa in front of it, and, still further anteriorly, the olivary eminence tuberculum seller.

A short distance behind the dorsum sellic we find the spheno- occipital synchondrosis, a slightly serrated line which indicates the boundary' between the body of the sphenoid and the occipital bone and is the remains of the synchondrosis originally separat- ing the two bones see page The remaining boundaries of this surface are the sanic as those seen on the external surface of the base of the skull, namely, the sphenoparietal and sphena- squamosal sutures, the joramen lacerum or sphenopetrosal fissure.

Near its origin from the body, the greater wing of the sphenoid bone contains thrte orifices; the joramen rolundum, IddJc fossa white, tuid the directed obliquely anteriorly and leading into a short canal, the joramen ovale, and the jot spinosum.

In addition to the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, the floor of the middle cranial fossa is fonned by the cerebral surface of ihe squamous portion of iho temporal bone and by the an- terior surface of the petrous jMrtion, the posterior surface of the petrous portion and the mastoid portion helping to form the floor of the posterior cranial fossa.

Upon the cerebral surface of the squamous portion of the temporal, commencing at the foramen spinosum, there is a groove, the sulcus arteriosus, which is continued by manifold rami- fications upon the inner surface of the cranial vault.

The posterior cranial fossa is the largest of all. The jugular joramen, situated between the temporal and occipital bones, is formed in the following manner.

In the mastoid portion of the temporal bone is the inner cerebral orifice of the mastoid joramen, and at the junction of the temporal, parietal, and occipital bones, where the lambdoid and occipitomastoid sutures become continuous, the sigmoid groove bends at ahnost a right angle into the transverse groove, so that the posterior inferior angle of the parietal bone, the mastoid angle, also aids in its formation.

The transverse groove passes across the inner surface of the squamous portion of the occipital bone as a markedly shallower groove to a median crucial elevation, the crucial eminence, whose center forms the internal occipital protuberance.

The cerebral surface of the occipital bone forms by far the greater portion of the floor of the posterior fossa. Its basilar portion forms a jwrtion of the so-called cliims, a steep bony incline passing from the back of the sella turcica to the border of the foramen magnum; the anterior portion of the clivus is formed by that part of the body of the sphenoid which is situated anterior to the original spheno-occipital synchondrosis.

At the outer side of the clivus there is the shallow, inferior petrosal groove, which is formed by the junction of the occipital and tem- poral bones in the petro-occipital fissure.

The lateral portions of the occipital bone, situated to either side of the foramen magnum, present two rounded projections upon their cerebral surface, the jugular tubercles, whose bases are traversed by the previously mentioned hypoglossal or anterior condyloid canal, and behind the jugular process usually in the beginning of the sigmoid groove is situated the internal extremity of the condyloid canal.

The superior aspect of the skull Fig. The visible sutures are the coronal suture, the sagittal suture, separating the parietal bones throughout their entire length, and the lambdoid suture, which forms an obtuse angle with the sagittal suture.

In the parietal bone, on either side of the sagittal suture and at about the junction of the third and fourth quarters, there is an orifice, the parietal joramen, and the foreshortened temporal line can also be seen.

The inner surface of the cranial vault Fig. It presents the same bones, frontal, parietal, and occipital, and the same sutures, the coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid.

Upon the inner surface of the sagittal suture we find a shallow groove, the sagittal groove, which commences at the crest of the frontal bone and passes backward over the parietal to the occipital bone.

The cerebral surfaces of all the bones of the cranial vault show vascular grooves, the sulci arteriosi; they are found in greatest numbers upon the i: arietal lx nc and, next in frequency, upon the frontal bone.

Small inconstant depres- sions, often of inconsiderable depth and situated particularly along the sagittal suture, are desig- nated as the jovcolce grayiidares or Pacchionian depressions.

After this consideration of the skull as a whole we turn to the description of the individual lx nes of the skull. The cranial bones are the occipital tone, the sphenoid bone, the two temporal tones, the two parietal tones, the frontai tone, and the ethmoid tone.

The facial tones are the nasal tones, the lachrymal tones, the vomer, the inferior turbinated bones cone her nasales injer lores , the maxillce, the palate tones, the zygomatic tones, the mandible, and the hyoid tone.

Only a part of the cranial bones are preformed in cartilage, Ihe majority being formed by direct ossification of connective tissue.

Those which are preformed in cartilage arc also known as primordial bones, and they are the occipital, with the exception of the upper part of the squamous portion, the sphenoid, with the exception of the internal plale of the pterygoid process, the entire ethmoid and the inferior turbinal, and the petrous and mastoid por- tions of the temporal.

TTie only portions of the visceral cephalic skeleton which are preformed in cartilage and are lo be regarded as primordial bones are the hyojd and the small auditory ossicles situated withb the temporal bone.

The following bones of the face are formed in membrane; the maxilli, he palate bones, the internal plates of the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone, the zygomatic bones, and the mandible.

The Cranial Bones, the occipital bone. The occipital bone Figs. They are termed the basUar portion, the lateral portions, and the squamous portion, and are grouped about the foramen mag- num in such a way that the basilar portion is in front, the lateral portions arc to cither side, and the squamous portion is behind the foramen.

The basilar portion of the adult skull and the body of the sphenoid bone arc united by osseous tissue Fig.

The lower surface of the basilar portion, which forms a part of the external surface of the base of the cranium, lies almost horizontally, but the cerebral surface passes obliquely from above downward and from before backward and forms the clivus Blumenbachii.

The inferior surface Fig. The lateral portions, also termed the condyloid portions, extend posteriorly, and gradually become broader and thinner as they pass into the squamous portion of the bone.

Their most important structures are the condyles Figs. Behind the condyles there is a depression, the condyloid jossa Fig.

The right anterior dinoid process is fused with the middle one. See all customer images. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States.

There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. I got this watch for my brother as a present and I am very pleased with the finish of the product.

The wood and the stainless steel are a gorgeous combination and the rendering is original. It is really nice but doesnt really look like wood as intended to be!

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Translate all reviews to English. Beschreibung:Armband und Zifferblatt bestehen aus Sandelholz nur schwarz und nicht ansatzweise aus Holz. Ich dachte an einen Produktionsfehler, da es auf Youtube ein Review zu der Uhr gibt und diese eindeutig ein Ziffernblatt aus Sandelholz hat.

Heute kam die Uhr zum 2. Daher gebe ich nur 3 Sterne. Ich habe jetzt auch eine Email an den Hersteller geschickt vielleicht kann dieser mir sagen wo das Sandelholz Ziffernblatt geblieben ist Laut Laimer ist die Aktuelle Prduktion sehr dunkel.

Imme wieder wird darauf hingewiesen das Holz ein Naturprodukt ist und es vorkommen kann das die Maserung fast nicht zu sehen ist.

Das verstehe ich ja, aber komisch das 2 Uhren vom Ziffernblatt gleich ausschauen und keine Spur von Holz Maserung oder Holzkerben aufweisen.

Translate review to English. So ist es auch bei uns passiert. Nun besorgen wir uns ein passendes Armband, was nicht aus Holz ist. Ich kann nur sagen: Schade.

One person found this helpful. Tolle Uhr, in schickem Design. Allerdings ist das Zifferblatt nicht wie angegeben aus Holzfarben, sondern wirkt einfarbig Schwarz.

Werde sie trotzdem behalten. Die Ware wird retourniert. Weder Armband noch Ziffernblatt entsprechen der Produktdarstellung. Kaufpreis war EUR , Report abuse Translate review to English.

Orologio meraviglioso ma il colore non corrisponde per nulla alla foto! Arrivato scurissimo, praticamente nero. Pages with related products.

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